23 Oswald

John Oswald (1953 - ) is a saxaphone player in the free improvising trio CCMC but is best known for his sampling and cutting remixes of famous music in the CD Plunderphonics and the following similar works. Though Oswald gave the music away for free and all of his samples were fully credited, he was forced to destroy all of his remaining CDs and could no longer produce or distribute the works. After attaining more "legal green lights" to record and distribute, Oswald eventually released more similar albums and eventually his original plunderphoniscs album. Oswald's work touches on a sore subject in the music world, the legality behind using audio created by others, using motifs and immitating melodies found in other music.

In the idea of borrowing ideas and concepts, there are many thoughts. Ralph Waldo Emerson, in his essay "Quotations and Originality" said, "What you owe to me - you will vary the phrase - but I shall still recognize my thought. But what you say from the same idea, wil have to me also the expected unexpectedness which belongs to every new work of Nature." Jazz musicians also have been known to cross reference during their extemporizations, but are unable put their fingers in the air and make quote a expression (" ") before and after each referenced phrase. Oswald suggests that advanced technology will create expert tune-writing software that can reference a lexicon of melodies in the future anyways and that it is the context of the usage that determines its value.

Direct usage of audio qualities such as samplers and using direct clips in audio bestoys more complications. Oswald desires openess in the legal usage of "stealing" audio and increased responsibility from the artist to acknowledge the sources. The thought of Jim Milton is that plagerism occurs when it is not bettered by the borrower. Stravinsky adds that "A good composer does not imitate, he steals" When music is taken and does not offend the uniqueness of the original work and artist.

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