35 Cardew - Garza

Corneluis Cardew - (1936-81) Cardew was a big name in the avant garde music scene. He's worked with Stockhausen and Ligeti. He is the creator of the "Scratch Orchestra" which is an ensemble of musicians and non musicians who play free improvised "music" based on a visual score. After the Scratch Orchestra he made romantic folk music, and finally joined the political rock group "People's Liberation Music." He was hit by a hit and run driver in 1981.

Scratch Orchestra - A large number of enthusiasts pooling thier resources (not primarily material resources) and assembling for action (music making, performance, edification).

According to Cardew, the definition of music in a scratch orchestra is undetermined and purely up to the performer.

There are 5 diferent catagories of material to be played by a scratch orchestra.

1. Scratch Music - This is the process of each member notating an accompaniment based off of any visual aid. Depending on when the piece is played in a concert, it could either be a scratch overature, interlude, or finale.

2. Popular Classics - One player reads a portion of a piece that everyone "knows" while everyone else fills in the gaps with improvisation or parts of the piece they know. The challenge is not overwhelming the lead. These are titled as the original.

3. Improvisation Rites - This is a time for improv or to create a rite or a collective rite. This one seems pretty open, except this one reqires a rehearsal.

4. Compositions - This should be a predetermined piece chosen by the members of the ensemble. It should be rehearsed and as close to the original as possible.

5. Research Project - This one is not required, but is encouraged for cultural expansion. Once you find a research vector that suites the group (a word or group of words) the group basically imagines they are what they are researching. The book gave an example of Tiger. Playing in a zoo, same emotional context, and symbolizing the evolution of a species through time. It is a journey. The group discusses everything beforehand. This should be a learning experience. Research should be through direct experience rather than academic research.

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