The Hub:

  • Oldest and best-known collective
  • Group of 6 programmer/improvisers performing interactively with composing computers
  • Fully interconnected network where communicate MIDI messages to other computers


  • Devised by Tim Perkis, member of The Hub
  • Piece where minimal amount of musical structure planned in advance

1. Each player sends/recieves requests to play one note
2. Play the note requested —> transform the note and send it out to someone else

  • One lead player changes sections by sending message to other players

pp 365

Improvisation with Scales: Scales Algorithm

  • Eric Singer's improvisation algorithm generates solo lines using stored scales
  • Associates pentatonic scales with chord type
  • Algorithm maintains set path: Used to make intervalic steps through scale

C++ language:

  • scaleList = collection of scales
  • AddPattern = stores scale in scaleList indicated by chord type

pp 370-372

Melodic Lines:

  • David Baker's Jazz Improvisation mentions 3 approaches to improve
  1. Scalar approach reducing chords to basic scale colors
  2. Player articulates each chord; outlining chord arpeggios 7th chords etc.
  3. Patterns predetermined/sponatenous based on chords

Scales algorithm applied:

  1. 1st approach: Stored scale transposed by root delivered from analysis
  2. 2nd approach: Pentatonic scales can define paths realize Baker's root-oriented pattern
  3. 3rd approach: Licks/riffs repeated questionable - Philip Johnson-Laird says, "improvisation…depends on acquiring a repertoire of motifs…which are then strung together one after the other to form an improvisation, suitably modified to meet the exigencies of the harmonic sequences." pp 372

Band in a Box

  • Program creator: Peter Gannon of PG Music Inc.
  • Automatic-accompaniment program
  • Generates 5-instrument accomp.
  • Includes digital audio track for live vocals or instrument
  • Intelligent style selection, suggesting styles w/ similar tempo, genre, feel etc.
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